Percieved value of the incumbent brand and the (competing brand)
PV1: “What I get from [brand] is worth the costs.”
PV2: “All things considered (price, time, and effort), (brand) is a good buy in the (category).”
PV3: “Compared with other (category) brands, [brand] is good value for the money.”
•PV4: “When I use (brand) I feel I am getting my money’s Worth”
seven-point Likert scale, anchored by “strongly disagree/strongly agree.”
Source: Lam, S. K., Ahearne, M., Hu, Y., & Schillewaert, N. (2010). Resistance to brand switching when a radically new brand is introduced: A social identity theory perspective. Journal of Marketing, 74(6), 128-146.